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Medieval Room Ausstattung
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Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen.
There were also cranes with adjustable hooks so that pots and cauldrons could easily be swung away from the fire to keep them from burning or boiling over.
Utensils were often held directly over the fire or placed into embers on tripods. There were also assorted knives, stirring spoons, ladles and graters.
In wealthy households one of the most common tools was the mortar and sieve cloth, since many medieval recipes called for food to be finely chopped, mashed, strained and seasoned either before or after cooking.
This was based on a belief among physicians that the finer the consistency of food, the more effectively the body would absorb the nourishment.
It also gave skilled cooks the opportunity to elaborately shape the results. Fine-textured food was also associated with wealth; for example, finely milled flour was expensive, while the bread of commoners was typically brown and coarse.
A typical procedure was farcing from the Latin farcio, "to cram" , to skin and dress an animal, grind up the meat and mix it with spices and other ingredients and then return it into its own skin, or mold it into the shape of a completely different animal.
The kitchen staff of huge noble or royal courts occasionally numbered in the hundreds, including: pantlers, bakers, waferers, sauciers, larderers, butchers, carvers, page boys, milkmaids, butlers and scullions.
Major kitchens of households had to cope with the logistics of daily providing at least two meals for several hundred people. Guidelines on how to prepare for a two-day banquet include a recommendation that the chief cook should have at hand at least 1, cartloads of "good, dry firewood" and a large barnful of coal.
A pantry is a room where food, provisions or dishes are stored and served in an ancillary capacity to the kitchen. The derivation of the word is from the same source as the Old French term paneterie; that is from pain , the French form of the Latin pan for bread.
In a late medieval hall, there were separate rooms for the various service functions and food storage. A pantry was where bread was kept and food preparation associated with it done.
The head of the office responsible for this room was referred to as a pantler. A larder is a cool area for storing food prior to use. Larders were commonplace in houses before the widespread use of the refrigerator.
Essential qualities of a larder are that it should be:as cool as possible, close to food preparation areas, constructed so as to exclude flies and vermin, easy to keep clean, and equipped with shelves and cupboards appropriate to the food being stored.
In the northern hemisphere, most houses would arrange to have their larder and kitchen on the north or east side of the house where it received least sun.
Many larders have small unglazed windows with the window opening covered in fine mesh. This allows free circulation of air without allowing flies to enter.
Many larders have tiled or painted walls to simplify cleaning. Older larders and especially those in larger houses have hooks in the ceiling to hang joints of meat or game.
Others have insulated containers for ice. A pantry may contain a a stone slab or shelf used to keep food cool in the days before refrigeration was domestically available.
In the late medieval hall, a thrawl would have been appropriate to a larder. In a large or moderately large nineteenth century house, all these rooms would have been placed as low in the building as possible, or as convenient, in order to use the mass of the ground to retain a low summer temperature.
For this reason, a buttery was usually called the cellar by this stage. In medieval households the larderer was an officer responsible for meat and fish, as well as the room where these commodities were kept.
The Scots term for larder was the spence, and so in Scotland larderers also pantlers and cellarers were known as spencers.
This is one of the derivations of the modern surname. The office only existed as a separate office in larger households. It was closely connected with other offices of the kitchen, such as the saucery and the scullery.
A buttery was a domestic room in a castle or large medieval house. It was one of the offices pertaining to the kitchen. It was generally a room close to the Great Hall and was traditionally the place from which the yeoman of the buttery served beer and candles to those lower members of the household not entitled to drink wine.
The buttery generally had a staircase to the beer cellar below. The wine cellars, however, belonged to a different department, that of the yeoman of the cellar and in keeping with the higher value of their contents were often more richly decorated to reflect the higher status of their contents.
From the midth century, as it became the custom for servants and their offices to be less conspicuous and sited far from the principal reception rooms, the Great Hall and its neighbouring buttery and pantry lost their original uses.
While the Great Hall often became a grand staircase hall or large reception hall, the smaller buttery and pantry were often amalgamated to form a further reception or dining room.
A gatehouse is a fortified structure built over the gateway to a city or castle. The modern gatehouse is a feature of European castles, manor houses and mansions.
Gatehouses made their first appearance in the early antiquity when it became necessary to protect the main entrance to a castle or town. Over time, they evolved into very complicated structures with many lines of defence.
Strongly fortified gatehouses would normally include a drawbridge, one or more portcullises, machicolations, arrow loops and possibly even murder-holes where stones would be dropped on attackers.
In the late Middle Ages, some of these arrow loops might have been converted into gun loops or gun ports. Sometimes gatehouses formed part of town fortifications, perhaps defending the passage of a bridge across a river or a moat, as Monnow Bridge in Monmouth.
York has four important gatehouses, known as "Bars", in its city walls. The French term for gatehouse is logis-porche. This could be a large, complex structure that served both as a gateway and lodging or it could have been composed of a gateway through an enclosing wall.
At the end of the Middle Ages, gatehouses in England and France were often converted into beautiful, grand entrance structures to manor houses or estates.
Many of them became a separate feature free-standing or attached to the manor or mansion only by an enclosing wall. By this time the gatehouse had lost its defensive purpose and had become more of a monumental structure designed to harmonise with the manor or mansion.
Throughout the medieval period Christianity of the form currently in power was obligatory, with the interment exception of Jews.
Almost everyone was obliged to profess Christian belief and to act accordingly. Only the most powerful nobles like Frederick II were able to express disbelief without risking their lives.
The room in the castle called the Chapel was intended for prayer and used by all members of the castle household.
It was usually close to the Great hall. It was often built two stories high, with the nave divided horizontally. The Lord's family and dignitaries sat in the upper part and the servants occupied the lower part of the chapel.
An Oratory was intended for use as a private chapel. It was a room attached to the chapel that could be used for private prayer by the Lord's family.
Today, the owners of Many Castles and Manor Houses will for a fee allow people to get married in their Castle chapels with the reception then taking place in the Castle.
Click here for a list of Castles offering Weddings and Civil Partnerships. Heating the main rooms in large palaces or mansions in the winter was difficult, and small rooms were more comfortable.
They also offered more privacy from servants, other household members, and visitors. Typically such a room would be for the use of a single individual, so that a house might have two or more.
Names varied: cabinet, closet, study from the Italian studiolo , or office. A cabinet was one of a number of terms for a private room in the castles and palaces of Early Modern Europe, serving as a study or retreat, usually for a man.
A cabinet would typically be furnished with books and works of art, and sited adjacent to his bedchamber evolving into the equivalent of the Italian Renaissance studiolo and the modern English studio.
Such a room might be used as a study or office, or just a sitting room. In the Late Medieval period, such requirements for privacy had been served by the solar of the English gentry house.
Cabinets could be used for small private meetings - for example between the king and his ministers. Since the reign of King George I, the Cabinet — which takes its name from the room — has been the principal executive group of British government, and the term has been adopted in most English-speaking countries.
Phrases such as "cabinet counsel", meaning advice given in private to the monarch, occur from the late 16th century. The word c cabinet in English was often used for strongrooms, or treasure-stores - the tiny but exquisite Elizabethan tower strongroom at Lacock Abbey might have been so called - but also in the wider sense.
In Elizabethan England, such a private retreat would most likely be termed a closet, the most recent in a series of developments in which people of means found ways to withdraw from the public life of the household as it was lived in the late medieval great hall.
This sense of "closet" has continued use in the term "closet drama", which is a literary work in the form of theatre, intended not to be mounted nor publicly presented, but to be read and visualised in privacy.
Two people in intimate private conversation are said to be "closetted". Much later closets were ideal locations for lavatories - which thus became known as water closets or WCs.
There is a rare surviving cabinet or closet with its contents probably little changed since the early 18th century at Ham House in Richmond, London.
It is less than ten feet square, and leads off from the Long Gallery, which is well over a hundred feet long by about twenty wide, giving a rather startling change in scale and atmosphere.
As is often the case at Chatsworth House for example , it has an excellent view of the front entrance to the house, so that comings and goings can be discreetly observed.
Most surviving large houses or palaces, especially from before , have such rooms, but again as at Chatsworth they are very often not displayed to visitors.
A boudoir is a lady's private bedroom, sitting room or dressing room. The term derives from the French verb bouder, meaning "to pout" - because the room was seen as a "pouting room".
Historically, the boudoir formed part of the private suite of rooms of a lady, for bathing and dressing, adjacent to her bedchamber.
In this it was the female equivalent of the male cabinet. In later periods, the boudoir was used as a private drawing room, and was used for other activities, such as embroidery or entertaining intimate acquaintances.
A casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. It was intended to be impenetrable and could be used for sheltering troops or stores.
The room in the castle called the Place of Arms was a large area in a covered way, where troops could assemble. While some were used as simple storerooms, others were rented out as shops.
For example, the undercroft rooms at Myres Castle in Scotland circa were used as the medieval kitchen and a range of stores.
The undercroft beneath the House of Lords in the Palace of Westminster in London was rented out to the conspirators behind the Gunpowder Plot in Many early medieval undercrofts were vaulted or groined, such as the vaulted chamber at Beverston Castle or the groined stores at Myres Castle.
Undercrofts were commonly built in England and Scotland throughout the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries.
An ice-house was just that: a special insulated house to keep ice. During the winter, ice and snow would be taken into the ice house and packed with insulation, often straw or sawdust.
It would remain frozen for many months, often until the following winter, and could be used as a source of ice during summer months.
The main application of the ice was the storage of perishable foods, but it could also be used simply to cool drinks, or allow ice-cream and sorbet desserts to be prepared.
Ice houses are found in ha-ha walls, house and stable basements, woodland banks, and even open fields.
The most common designs involved underground chambers, usually man-made, and built close to natural sources of winter ice such as freshwater lakes.
Ice houses varied in design depending on the date and builder, but were mainly conical or rounded at the bottom to hold melted ice. They usually had a drain to take away any water.
In some cases ponds were built nearby specifically to provide the ice in winter. The ice house was formally introduced to Britain around , although there are occasional examples surviving from the medieval period.
British ice houses were commonly brick lined, domed structures, with most of their volume underground. The idea for formal ice houses was brought to Britain by travellers who had seen similar arrangements in Italy, where peasants collected ice from the mountains and used it to keep food fresh inside caves.
Usually only castles and large manor houses had purpose-built buildings to store ice. Many examples of ice houses exist in the UK some of which have fallen into a poor state of repair.
Game larders and venison larders were sometimes marked on ordnance survey maps as ice houses. The idea was old even in Medieval times.
Ice houses originally invented in Persia were buildings used to store ice throughout the year. An inscription from BC in northwest Iran records the construction of an icehouse, "which never before had any king built.
Alexander the Great around BC stored snow in pits dug for that purpose. In Rome in the third century AD, snow was imported from the mountains, stored in straw-covered pits, and sold from snow shops.
Dovecotes may be square or circular free-standing structures or built into the end of a house or barn.
They generally contain pigeonholes for the birds to nest. Pigeons and doves were an important food source historically in Western Europe and were kept for their eggs, flesh, and dung.
In Medieval Europe, the possession of a dovecote was a symbol of status and power and was regulated by law. Only nobles had this special privilege known as droit de colombier.
Their location is chosen away from large trees that can house raptors and shielded from prevailing winds and their construction obeys a few safety rules: tight access doors and smooth walls with a protruding band of stones or other smooth surface to prohibit the entry of climbing predators such as rats, martens, and weasels.
The exterior facade was, if necessary, only evenly coated by a horizontal band, in order to prevent their ascent.
The oldest known dovecotes are the fortified dovecotes of Upper Egypt, and the domed dovecotes of Iran. In the dry regions, the droppings were in great demand and were collected on uniformly cleaned braids.
Dovecotes were built by the Romans, who knew them as Columbaria. They seem to have introduced them to Gaul. The presence of dovecotes is not noted in France before the Roman invasion of Gaul by Caesar.
The pigeon farm was then a passion in Rome: the Roman columbarium , generally round, had its interior covered with a white coating of marble powder.
Varro, Columella and Pliny the Elder wrote works on pigeon farms and dovecote construction. The French word for dovecote is pigeonnier or colombier.
In some French provinces, especially Normandy, dovecotes were built of wood in a very stylised way.
Stone was the other popular building material for these old dovecotes. These stone structures were usually built in circular, square and occasionally octagonal form.
Some of the medieval French abbeys had very large stone dovecotes on their grounds. In Brittany the dovecote was sometimes built directly into the upper walls of the farmhouse or manor-house.
In rare cases, it was built into the upper gallery of the lookout tower for example at the Toul-an-Gollet manor in Plesidy, Brittany.
Dovecotes of this type are called tour-fuie in French. The dovecote interior, the space granted to the pigeons, is divided into a number of boulins pigeon holes.
Each boulin is the lodging of a pair of pigeons. These boulins can be in rock, brick or cob adobe and installed at the time of the construction of the dovecote or be in pottery jars lying sideways, flat tiles, etc.
It is the number of boulins that indicates the capacity of the dovecote. He was granted permission by his overlord to build a dovecote or two on his estate lands.
For the other constructions, the dovecote rights droit de colombier varied according to the provinces. They had to be in proportion to the importance of the property, placed in a floor above a henhouse, a kennel, a bread oven, even a wine cellar.
Generally the aviaries were integrated into a stable, a barn or a shed, and were permitted to use no more than 2. Although they produced an excellent fertiliser known as colombine , the lord's pigeons were often seen as a nuisance by the nearby peasant farmers, in particular at the time of sowing of new crops.
In numerous regions where the right to possess a dovecote was reserved solely for the nobility , the complaint rolls very frequently recorded formal requests for the suppression of this privilege and a law for its abolition, which was finally ratified on 4 August in France.
Many ancient manors in France have a dovecote still standing or in ruins in one section of the manorial enclosure or in nearby fields.Then the second Wildcats Arizona your right is the Zonnekemeers, where the parking is halfway on your Anche Se Il Mondo E Un Gran Casino Tu Respirami Vicino. Prague — This and That. It's best accessible by entering the centre from the Central Station Oostmeers. You'll find a 'hospitality tray' on which you can make yourself a Novago Login of Dragon Citty or a cup of coffee Nespresso cups any time of the day. Beschreibung The superior room Walplein gives broad views to the medieval square and its high trees. Alle 29 Bewertungen für Jaunpils Pils anzeigen. Bayleaf Farmstead, England. Hand held, in less than ideal light conditions, and with an ISO heading towards four figures, but still this is a beautiful place and I really wanted a record of it on my stream. Jesikah Sundin, Author. Von Marion Lönhoff William Novo App Book Of Ra Geht Nicht war unermüdlich.